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401(k) Contribution Limits for 2021 & 2022

401(k) Contribution Limits for 2021 & 2022

A 401(k) work plan helps you save a considerable amount each year in retirement, but there are annual limits for your contributions and those of your employer. Whether you choose a Roth 401(k) for your tax-free retirement income or a traditional 401(k) for your initial tax exemption or (or both), your contribution limits are the same. Let's take a look at how much you and your employer can contribute to your 401(k) account for 2021 and 2022.


401(k) Contribution limits 2021 vs. 2022

For tax year 2021, your individual 401(k) contribution limit is $19,500 or $26,000 if you are 50 or older. In 2022, the 401(k) contribution limits for individuals are $20,500 or $27,000 if you are 50 or older.

  • Maximum employee contribution for 2021 is $19,500 and $20,500 for 2022

  • Catch-Up contributions for people aged 50 and over for 2021 is $6,500 and $6,500 for 2022

These individual limits are accumulated in 401(k) plans. If you leave a job to start a new position in the 2021 calendar year, your individual 401(k) contributions has a limit to a cumulative total of $19,500 or $26,000 if you are 50 or over in both schemes, in both works. Matching or non-matching 401(k) contributions made to your account by an employer do not count towards the individual contribution limit.

You can also make non-tax deductible (not Roth) contributions to traditional 401(k) plans above the employee contribution limit. About one-fifth of 401(k) plans allow employees to make these types of contributions, which are still subject to the 2021 401(k) maximum contribution of $58,000 ($64,500 for those 50 and over) and to a maximum of $61,000 ($67,500 if you are 50 or over) for 2022.


401(k) contribution limits for tax year 2021 and 2022

Several employers offer 401(k) equivalent contributions as part of their benefits. With a 401(k) contribution, the employer agrees to double the contribution up to a certain percentage of salary. In addition to cleared contributions, some employers may share a percentage of their earnings with employees in the form of inappropriate 401(k) contributions.

Although match and unmatched contributions to an employer's 401(k) plan do not count towards the employee's deductible contribution limit of $19,500 ($26,000 if you are 50 years of age or older), they are limited by your total contribution limit.

An employee and an employer's total 401(k) plan contributions cannot exceed $58,000 in 2021 or $61,000 in 2022. Catch-up contributions for employees 50 and over will increase from $64,500 in 2021 to a total of $67,500 in 2022. The total contributions cannot exceed 100% of the employee's annual salary.

Total 401(k) Annual limits on employer and employee contributions

  • 401(k) Employee and employee contributions are $58,000 for 2021 and $61,000 for 2022.

  • Total upgrade contributions for people over 50 and above stands at $64,500 for 2021 and $67,500 for 2022.

Although annual individual contribution limits are cumulative in 401(k) plans, employer contribution limits are found on the plan. If you've participated in multiple 401(k) plans in a calendar year, each of your employers could be maximizing contributions.


Traditional Roth 401(k) contribution limits

Like individual retirement accounts (IRA), 401(k) accounts are available as traditional and Roth accounts. Both types have the same annual contribution limits for employees and employers.


Traditional 401(k)

A traditional 401(k) plan allows you to deduct the amount of your employees' total contributions from taxable income each year. Typically this means that if you made $50,000 and contributed $5,000 to your traditional 401(k) plan, you would be paying your taxes as if you were earning $45,000. At retirement or after the age of 59 and a half, you pay income tax on the basis of the marginal rate in effect at that time.


Roth 401(k)s

With a Roth 401(k), contribute money you have already paid taxes on. Withdrawals made after the age of 59½ are tax exempt as long as at least five years have passed since the first contribution. However, the Roth 401(k) comes with a few caveats:

  • If your company provides you with a 401(k) match, you cannot save it to a Roth account. Employer matching contributions are held in a traditional 401(k) account.

  • Not all employers offer Roth 401(k), although its prevalence is increasing rapidly.

  • Unlike the Roth IRA, the Roth 401(k) has no income restrictions, which means anyone with access to the Roth 401(k) can contribute.


Highly compensated employees: 401(k) contribution limits 

Some 401(k) plans have additional contribution limits for well-paid employees. (If your employer has a Safe Harbor 401(k) plan and you earn a lot, these limits may not apply to you.)

Highly compensated employees (HCE) cannot contribute more than 2% of their salary to a 401(k) of the unpaid average salary contribution. This means that if the average non-HCE employee contributes 5% of the salary, an HCE can contribute up to 7% of the salary. In addition to the federal limit, your business may have specific limits to meet.

The IRS determines that you are HCE if:

  • Last year you owned 5% or more of a business, and this year you participated in the 401(k) plan.

  • Or you made $130,000 or more in 2020 with a 401(k) business you are involved with this year.

Unlike other 401(k) limit guidelines, HCE ratings are based on the pervious year. For the plan year 2022, the employee salary limit is $135,000.

If HCE contribution rates are more than 2% higher than non-HCE contribution rates, company occupational pension plans could lose their tax benefit status. As an HCE, you may not be able to contribute 401(k) to your employee's maximum contribution due to the low 401(k) participation fee. However, if you are eligible, you must be able to make recovery contributions beyond the HCE limit.

If you're limited by HCE limits but still want to contribute more, consider going with a retirement account outside of your employer-sponsored plan, such as a traditional IRA.


What if you contributed a lot to a 401(k)?

If your 401(k) contributions exceed the above limits, you may end up paying two taxes for the excess contributions: once as part of taxable income for the year you contribute, and the second time, you opt out of your plan. Earning continues to increase under tax-suspended conditions until you withdraw it.

If you feel you have over-contributed to 401(k), please notify Human Resources or Payroll and the Plan Administrator immediately. You have until your tax deadline, usually April 15, to fix the problem and get your money back in a normal year.

Excess deferrals to a 401(k) plan should be withdrawn and returned. The human resources or payroll department will need to adjust your W-2 to include excess carryforwards as part of your taxable income. If over-payments are paid, you will receive another tax form to file in the next fiscal year.


How to Maximize Your Savings for 401(k) Pensions.

A 401(k) business account can be a powerful tool in helping you increase your retirement savings. To improve your 401(k) benefits, follow these tips:

  • Set the contribution level to get the most out of your employer's 401(k) contribution. If your business contributes a certain percentage of your contributions, set the contribution level to get the most out of it. Otherwise, you are leaving money on the table.

  • Start contributing to 401(k) now.

  • Take advantage of target-date funds. If you are overwhelmed by the investment options offered by your 401(k) plan, choose a fund with a due date that matches your year of early retirement. Target funds are optimized for your retirement plan, making them a great choice for beginners or more independent investors.

  • Regularly increase your 401(k) contribution rate. Maximize your 401(k) contribution rate by at least an additional percentage point each year. Small, incremental increases have minimal impact on your take-home pay and a big impact on your retirement savings over time. Also, if you receive any bonuses or tips, dedicate at least part of them to your savings.

  • Understand your employer's 401(k) equivalency accrual period. Equal 401(k) contributions from your employer may have an expiry period. This means that you will stay with the company for a few years before paying all of the contribution made by your to your 401(k) account. If you don't stay with the business until you've fully vested, you risk losing some or all of those contributions.

  • When you change jobs, roll over your 401(k). Employees lose or forget hundreds of thousands of workplace pension plans every year. If you like the current 401(k), make sure you know your login details and check in regularly. If your plan charges you high fees when you're no longer in business or don't like investment options, move on to the next retirement plan or IRA.


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